Wednesday, December 31, 2014

A New Year's Toast

As I was going through some old issues of Studio PMC, I came across a mention of PMC Connection that announced our arrival in the world of metal clay. "In January 2001, PMC Connection began its operations as a direct importer and distributor of PMC supplies in the United States." PMC Connection has gone through many changes since we were born, from both internal moves and external forces. The one thing that has remained constant throughout the years, though, is you - our customers, friends, readers, and supporters.

As we move closer to our "Sweet 16", we'd like to thank you all for being a part of our family and offer the following poem as our best wishes to you.

Kittikun Atsawintarangkul -

'Tis the day before New Year's and throughout cyber space, 
All the artists are planning, their goals to embrace.
Use a word or a phrase to define all your dreams,
Let the chosen intention keep track of your schemes.

As the year moves along and you grow with your art,
Try to do so with pride, and with grace, and with heart.
Let each detail and aspect you mold with your hands,
Show the voice and aesthetic that defines your brand.

It's the joy in the making that keeps us inspired,
Doing all that we can so our jewelry's admired.
And the skills that we've garnered as we toil late at night,
Ensure all that behold it will squeal with delight.

So we partner with you to support your endeavors,
To bring you the tools that help make your fine treasures.
And all of our goals - our dreams, schemes and wishes
Are to help you fulfill all your artistic blisses.

Now let's raise a glass high to the inventive ones, 
To the makers, the teachers, the creative mums.
Let's all learn and let's play 'til we're full up with cheer,
And make 2015 the very best year!!
Happiest New Year from the whole PMC Connection team!

Monday, December 22, 2014

Can Fine Silver Really Be Work-Hardened?

A question was asked online about how to work-harden fine silver. Someone had embedded fine silver wire into metal clay earrings and they wouldn't hold their shape. There was quite a bit of discussion on work-hardening fine silver.

I researched the answer and found this information.

What is a metal's hardness?
A metal’s range of hardness differs depending on its particular mixture due to its arranged patterns of crystals and concentrations of mass specific to that metal. Each metal type has a range of hardness from soft to hard only relative to that metal. In other words, each metal type has its own range of soft to full hard ratings. 

How is a metal's hardness measured? 
There are several tests developed for measuring hardness, Mohs, Vickers, and Brinell. Through research, I found that Vickers is most often used for measuring a metal's hardness because it has one of the widest scales among hardness tests, known as the Vickers Pyramid Number (HV). The Vickers test observes the metal's ability to resist plastic deformation from a standard source.

When comparing relative hardness, Vickers lists fine silver as having the most softness compared with sterling silver and argentium silver. It rates fine silver as the softest metal when it is fully hardened when comparing it to argentium silver and sterling silver. Even at full hardness fine silver is still softer than soft sterling silver.

For earrings, the metal must be work-hardened so that it holds its original shape and can spring back into its original shape when slightly bent. Work-hardened fine silver still isn't able to become work-hardened enough. This is why copper is added to fine silver, making sterling silver, so that it can be work-hardened until it is spring-hard.

So, use sterling silver in your metal clay earrings in order to gain the needed spring-hard hardness. Make sure you don't fire the sterling silver higher than 1300˚F (704.44ºC) or the metal becomes brittle.

There are a few ways to work-harden sterling silver.
  • Hammering the sterling silver with a rawhide or plastic mallet against an anvil
  • Twist sterling silver wire (posts) with pliers or compress them with pliers
  • Heat harden sterling silver in a kiln

According to Jörg Fischer-Bühner from Santa Fe Symposium® Proceedings, 2003. These are the steps for heat hardening sterling silver. 

Step 1: Check the sterling for any solder joints that may already be present.
Step 2: Heat the sterling to 1292°F–1346°F (700°C–730°C) for 30–60 minutes; adjusting temperatures if solder is present (if low-temperature solder is present, heat the piece only to 1000°F–1200°F). Quench in water.
Step 3: Heat the sterling again, this time to 572°F (300°C), holding at that temperature for 30–60 minutes. After cooling, Vickers hardness will range between 120–140dph; if lower temperatures are used, the sterling will not achieve this level.

Until next time, have fun claying around!

by Janet Alexander 
Technical Adviser

Monday, December 15, 2014

Profiles in Artistry - Susan Ellenton

Susan Ellenton is a metal clay artist living in Canada, and I might not ever have been aware of her work if not for the Master's Registry. When planning a design for one of the construction projects, Susan created a bi-cone bead with such an interesting texture that I had to learn more about it. When I found out she had been experimenting with regular old baking yeast, I was floored!

CS: How long have you been working with metal clay?
SE: I've been working with metal clay since 2006.

CS: What skills, interests, or achievements did you bring to your designs from previous work?
SE: I was trained in sciences and worked as a biologist in my 20's and 30's, first as a technician and later as a park naturalist. In 1973 I took a part-time job with a hippie silversmith. My Dad said, "It will be good for you, Susie - it will be something to fall back on". I've been messing around with silver ever since. I've always made my living with a combination of biology, silversmithing, and songwriting.
Bi-cone bead with yeast texture

CS: How did you discover and/or develop your signature style or technique?
SE: I kept wondering if there was some way of creating texture that would be unique to metal clay, i.e. something you couldn't also achieve with traditional methods like casting. One day after rummaging through my kitchen cupboards for things to embed in the clay surface, I headed off to the studio with poppy seeds, fennel seeds, and instant yeast granules. It wasn't until I was pressing the yeast into the metal clay that it occurred to me: given more moisture and the right temperatures, yeast would feed on the binder and grow. I ran lots of test samples to discover a range of wonderful effects, which you've seen on the bi-cone bead I made for the Registry.

Susan's yeast tests

The resulting textures are so interesting to me. Unlike many texture techniques I've tried, the yeast-grown textures look even better under magnification. Given how often the images of our work get enlarged for publication, that's a real plus.

CS: Tell us more about your work
SE: I have two different lines, which overlap, of course. What they have in common comes from my love of nature.

Beachgirl Barrette with moonstones.
First, my Cascadia designs, which are literal interpretations of the flora and fauna around where I live on Vancouver Island.  These designs were some of the first things I made in metal clay, and originally I was only thinking about what I myself would want to wear... Blackberry earrings, a bracelet of overlapping moon snails, and a sea urchin textured setting for a pearl ring. The Cascadia designs are my most popular sellers. However, I am better known within the metal clay community for technical innovations like experimental patinas, altered extrusions, and yeast grown textures. It was at a 2009 enamel workshop with Deb Lozier that I really embraced what it meant to be 'process oriented'. After that I began experimenting in earnest, letting the behavior of the metal clay 'speak' to me. As my accumulation of enigmatic metal forms and effects has grown, I've begun to treat them like found objects or beach-combed treasures, sometimes developing them into wearables, sometimes displaying them as sculpture. 

CS: How has your work or skill set evolved since you began working with metal clay?
SE: My manual dexterity is much improved - I can hold things with a delicate balance of gentleness and firmness, even when doing something that requires great concentration.  I've learned to see problems as opportunities. I've learned to torch fire enamels. I'm deepening my relationship with design. I've learned a lot about close-up photography and I've become a better presenter.

CS: Do you teach? If so, do you consider yourself primarily a teacher or a maker/seller?
SE: I do teach, and I value the teaching as much as the making - but I make more than I teach at present. 

'Extruded Undulations'. These forms are made by introducing a
wire into the nozzle of a syringe clay extruder. "I've tried
all sorts of extruding arrangements over the years.
Messy, but rewarding."
CS: How do you feel about teaching others your signature techniques?
SE: I'm especially interested in helping students become more process-oriented in their own practice, so when I share my techniques, I expect that my students will use them to develop their own style.  

CS: How would you like your future with metal clay to evolve?
SE: I want to bring more moment to moment awareness into my studio practice, and more trust in the process. I hope to pass on my love of making. 

CS: Why did you choose metal clay as your primary jewelry making material? What qualities do you particularly appreciate?
SE: It excites me! It builds on my background as an artisan silversmith. It is easy on the hands - I have repetitive strain, so when I heard about metal clays I had already given up hammering and sawing, etc. for nearly a decade.

I love that metal clay is easily recycled, and encourages playfulness. There are so many ways to work it - wet, dry, flexible or not, by accretion, by subtraction... After firing there are even more possibilities - you can decide to make it shiny or matte, solder it to other metal forms, play with color on metal, etc. And it is still fairly new, so there is room for pioneering. I like that a lot!

CS: What would you like new users of metal clay to know?
SE: Many skills from other craft media are beautifully transferable to metal clay - like basketry, paper arts, soap carving, pastry making, and others. The community of metal clay artisans is friendly, generous, and fun!

Thanks for playing Susan! It's so great to meet you and learn a little more about your work. Perhaps one day I'll get to see those fabulous extrusions in person. 

Posted by Lora Hart
Artistic Advisor

Monday, December 8, 2014

Protecting Yourself with Video Security

For years I've kept my studio location a secret due to the precious metals and jewelry I have stored inside. Now, I'm teaching classes and participating in studio tours, so the general public is in my studio quite a bit.

My studio doesn't have running water which means, during a class, I must leave students alone in the room. Sometimes, there is only one student. On a studio tour, however, people crowd in and can easily pick something up without my knowledge. I had one ring walk away on a tour.

I believe my students are trustworthy, but the new ones are strangers to me. Add to that the missing ring during a tour, I decided to put in a video monitoring security system. An art gallery I have my jewelry in told me about their monitoring system which they have been very happy with. My husband also talked with a security company manager who told him not to use wireless cameras as they can be hacked.

The system has four cameras, for indoor use only, that work day and night (IR). It supplies full color video monitoring that can transmit to a mobile phone, the web, or can be hooked up to a monitor. It activates with motion, can be scheduled for certain times, or can be activated by remote. A motion alarm is also available. It records to its own hard drive so all you have to provide is a monitor, and electricity with a surge protector.

The whole system cost me less than $400. In fact, I found it on sale the week after I purchased it for only $299. It's sold by Harbor Freight and it has some good and some bad reviews. Most of the bad reviews were because the camera was placed outside and got wet. These are indoor cameras. Additional cameras can be purchased for this system at any electronics store.

I think its a good system for the money and is definitely better than nothing.

Until next time, have fun claying around!

by Janet Alexander 
Technical Adviser

Monday, December 1, 2014

In The Studio - Stencil Texture

I'm in the midst of teaching a six week textures class here in Richmond, Virginia. The other evening, as I was demonstrating the Slip Printing technique (or as others call it - stencil technique), I showed my students that in addition to using a spatula to force slip through a stencil to create a plaster-like surface decoration on dry metal clay, you can also use the stencil to impart a smooth, design pattern on a fresh clay slab. Then, I had an epiphany - right there in class! I took a piece of lace and placed it over the stencil. This way I was able to create a detailed, textured, damask type pattern on the clay.

Here's how you do it:
• Roll out a slab of metal clay to the desired thickness.
• Place a scrapbook sized stencil over the rolled clay and spacers and roll again. Do not reduce the thickness of the spacers. The stencil should be thin enough that it will sink slightly into the clay and leave a shallow relief pattern.
• If you'd like to impart a textured surface to the design, roll the clay as described above, lay down the stencil, then the lace or other texture, THEN re-roll to impress both the stencil pattern and the texture at the same time.
• Experiment with lace, a skeleton leaf, tearaway textures, or other very thin material that is flexible enough to work with the stencil.
• A variation of this technique would be to roll the slab, re-roll with just the stencil, then before removing the stencil, texture the pattern with a mascara or toothbrush, ball burnisher, or other tool.
• To make the pattern completely unique - use a jewelers saw to pierce a design out of 26g brass.

Posted by Lora Hart
Artistic Advisor

Friday, November 21, 2014

Testing PMC Flex Clay - Using the Cameo Silhouette

The new PMC Flex clay has some great qualities. The obvious is that it is flexible for a long period of time, making it perfect for cutting out on the Cameo Silhouette machine. Cindy Pope tested it in September and wrote about her findings on this Facebook page. She found that it cuts and engraves beautifully.

In this blog I wanted to test the clay a little further. My first experiment was leaving the clay sitting around to dry for several weeks. Sometimes, I don't get around to cutting the design right away, or I have leftover clay I want to cut. In this case, I didn't get around to it for a month.

I was able to engrave and cut the clay without issue, but I wanted to see how flexible the clay was. Could it be domed over a Perfect Match Dome?

I hydrated the clay with a wet brush and allowed it to soak in. I repeated the process over and over; however, it still didn't seem very flexible. I continued trying to rehydrate for several hours. I then tried bending the clay over the dome, but it cracked along the etching lines.

For my next experiment, I rolled some more clay out and dried it overnight. I etched the clay slightly less in depth and then rehydrated it as I had done with the last batch of clay. This time I could see that it was becoming more bendable after hydrating only twice. When I domed it, I pressed it into the dome instead of pressing over the dome. This supported the clay as I pressed it down. Success!

In review, it's best to cut, engrave, and dome PMC Flex within 24 hours of air drying it. Dome it by pressing into the dome instead of over the dome. 

Until next time, have fun claying around!

by Janet Alexander 
Technical Adviser

Monday, November 17, 2014


For years creative types used magazines, paste, and a large sheet of heavy paper, to compile a collection of images, words, and quotes that would inspire their art or daily lives. Called "Vison Boards", these collages were tools that helped a person remember influences, plan goals, and chart references. Today we can make use of the high tech, cyber hosted website, Pinterest, to curate entire galleries of photographs.

I'm sure many of you have already discovered Pinterest, some have visited but not yet begun your own page, and others may be put off by the addictive nature of the beast. I totally understand those folks. I avoided joining Pinterest for months for just that reason. "Another time vortex," I thought. Something to keep me from doing 'real' work, another sea to surf in the waters of the internet. But, once I got onboard, I realized what a valuable service Pinterest provides.

For those who may not know exactly how this site works, when you first join (just use your email address - you don't have to connect your FaceBook or Twitter accounts) your 'home' page will be filled with copies of the wide variety of images pinned by the vast universe of Pinterest members. When you 'follow' people or pin boards that you like and that speak to your own interests and aesthetics, the photos they pin will start filling your screen. You can simply 'like' an image or even better - you can re-pin it onto a board of your own. You can also pin images anywhere you see them on the web if you download the "Pin It" button. And, you can even upload an image directly from your computer using the + sign in the lower right of the page. You can create as many boards as you like, on any subject you like, and you can rearrange the order they are displayed on your personal page by clicking, holding and dragging them anywhere you like (I suggest you drag just one or two into place at a time, and then hit refresh to 'set' the board).

Don't know what to pin? How about making a board of just interesting clasps? Or stone settings you like? Or tutorials you want to remember? Of course you probably want a board filled with fabulous metal clay jewelry, but you'll also get a ton of ideas if you look closely at fabricated, historical, tribal, found object, or other kinds of jewelry. Pinning natural objects, architecture, wallpaper and other things might give you ideas for shapes or textures to use. Pinning home decor, fabulous food, and DIY projects will just be plain fun.

Take a look at all the various clickable links at the top of the Pinterest page. You can search for specific categories and pinners, take a look at generalized categories that are the most popular on Pinterest by clicking on the three horizontal lines, refresh the page by clicking the P logo on the left, see if anyone has commented on or re-pinned your photos by looking at the speech bubble on the right side of the page (the bubble is red if there's something to see), and much more. There are many tutorials on using Pinterest on YouTube, but the 'powers-that-be' at Pinterest are always fiddling and changing things around to make things more interesting for us - so what you see today may not be correct tomorrow.

Did you know that PMC Connection has a Pinterest account? And there's even a board there that you can pin to yourself? Just 'follow' us on Pinterest, then contact us on FaceBook (tag my name and I'll see it right away) and tell us you'd like to be added to the board "Metal Clay Favorites". Give us your email address or Pinterest address and we'll send you an invitation. The board will then magically appear on your own Pinterest site and you can add to it just the way you add to any other board. All we ask is that you do some research to give credit to the artist of any piece of jewelry you pin if it's not already listed.

** So many photos on Pinterest are uncredited and it's really a shame, so I'm on a mission to encourage folks to rewrite the description of a pin to include important information. When you click on a full size image, you'll be sent to the original source of that exact image. You can then (hopefully) see the artist's name and change the description below the photo. **

I've made 130 boards (at the time of this writing) focusing on jewelry and teaching, but also have some featuring my home design aesthetic, memories of LA, quotes, and other things that interest me. Feel free to take a quick look around and see if there's any board you'd like to 'follow'. You can 'unfollow' them at any time. Look at the stats above the photos on my personal (or other peoples) 'title' page and you can see who I'm following and who's following me. You can follow every single board with just a single click of your finger, or choose individual boards that look particularly interesting (you probably don't want to see links to Moving Tips do you?).

If you click on an image in a collection, you'll go right to the full size copy of it. If you look in the upper left above that image, you'll see the person who pinned it - then if you click on their name or avatar you'll be taken to their home page. It's a wonderful, vicious, circle of inspiration.

Want our readers to follow you? Go to FaceBook and leave the link to your own Pinterest board.

Posted by Lora Hart
Artistic Advisor

Monday, November 10, 2014

Keeping Opened Metal Clay Hydrated While Not in Use

The PMC brand clay package has a lock closure that keeps the package tightly sealed. However, this isn't enough to keep the plastic-wrapped clay from drying out over time.

A great way to store your opened clay is to use a Clay Vault. It comes with small moisture absorbing crystals (polymer gel) that, when exposed to water, expand to more than ten times their volume, holding the water inside them. They are also non-toxic. As they dry out they shrink back down in size. They last for a year or more before they decompose. These crystals can also be added directly to the PMC package to keep clay moist.

Another option is to purchase water beads found in the floral department in stores. A small 10g package costs less than $2 and lasts for years. I have yet to use up the package I bought three years ago.

Of course, when storing the clay in one of the above containers, it's best to wrap it in plastic wrap. I learned a great tip about cutting the plastic wrap into smaller usable sizes from Lorrene Baum-Davis.

Take the roll of plastic wrap out of the box. Using a razor knife, cut a slit down the roll's length through all layers, then make a cut in the center around the plastic roll. Now, when you remove a piece of plastic wrap, it's already cut into small rectangles!

Until next time, have fun claying around!

by Janet Alexander 
Technical Adviser

Monday, November 3, 2014

In The Studio - Making Rivet Heads

See how close the rivet heads
are to the U shaped elements?
The other day a friend of mine asked for help getting ready for a show after she injured her hand. One of the tasks I agreed to do was to rivet a brooch that had been partially completed. Kim had already cut the backing, soldered pin parts, drilled holes for the rivets, and attached squared off, U-shaped elements to hold a chain. The rivet holes were really close to the U elements, and since I don't do much riveting on a regular basis I was worried that I would mar the metal or the U elements while hammering the rivet head. I was originally taught to rivet both heads on the wire while it was in the rivet hole - moving back and forth from one side to the other, but I knew I needed to alter that technique to complete this project.

I curled the ends of the wires, so they
wouldn't fall out. 

First, I tried to rig a micro bench block. The rivet making theory is that metal has to touch metal has to touch metal - hammer to wire to steel bench block. But with all the bits that were soldered to the back, I couldn't easily place the wire on my 4" block to rivet it. So, I took a small dapping tool, turned it upside down, fitted it into my vise, carefully settled the wire onto the flat end of the mandrel, and started tapping away. It worked, but the wire kept slipping around and I formed a very unattractive rivet head.

You could also perform this technique
using a wire gauge. Instead, I just took
a scrap piece of brass and drilled holes
with the drill bit/wire gauges I use most often.
Then I thought if one rivet head was already formed, I could easily thread it through from the back and just complete the connection on the front of the pin. I used my butane torch to form a ball on the end of a piece of 18g wire (the size of the existing holes), drilled an 18g hole in a piece of brass and all the way through my bench pin, threaded the balled wire through the brass and bench pin, and hammered the ball into a rivet head! So easy. I'm going to use this method from now on. I'm sure other fabricators have already discovered these tricks, but they were real "aha!" moments for me.

Some folks have trouble balling the end of sterling wire without getting an unattractive rippled surface. This ripple is just like reticulation, it's the copper content of the sterling moving under the top layer of silver, deforming it. Don't quote me (perhaps our Tech Advisor and resident goldsmith, Janet Alexander, will chime in in the comments section), but I think this effect has to do with the rapid cooling of the metal.

Oxidation formed by balling wire
is really thin and can be removed easily
with sandpaper. No need to pickle.
What I do is to hold the wire perpendicularly at the very tip of the inner blue flame (which is the hottest part of the flame) until a ball is formed, but instead of quickly removing the wire, I linger a second or two slightly above in the bushier part of the flame and very slowly move the wire upwards to cool it. Then I drop it in water to quench it. This slower ball forming method has never failed me. I always get a smooth sterling ball. Of course you could use fine silver, which doesn't deform at all, but fine silver is softer than sterling and isn't always an option.

I'm so glad I was able to help out a friend, and learn something new in the process.

Posted by Lora Hart ~
Artistic Advisor

Monday, October 27, 2014

Be Fire Wise in Your Studio

As a jeweler who works with torches and fuels I have a responsibility to my family, students, and neighbors to keep my studio safe, or fire wise.

I heard on the news a few years ago about a jeweler and his son being blown up in their home because of a propane leak. All of us who use torches must always think of safety and now that I live in a forest with a fifth season, wild fire, I must be extra careful. Here are some safety tips when you have tanks of oxygen and fuels in your studio.

Keep your tanks secure so that they cannot fall over and risk breaking the stem off the tank. Many tank systems have stands they can be kept in. If yours doesn’t, chain it to a wall or work bench.

When not in use keep the tank cap on the tank, if it has one. This protects the stem. If the tank will sit unused for long periods of time, remove the valves and attach the steel tank cap. If the stem were to be knocked off, the tank will become a flying missile.

Never use oil on an oxygen tank. I don’t care how rusty the threads may be, mixing oil and oxygen becomes explosive. If the threads look rusty, clean them with a brass or steel brush.

Before turning on your system and using it, check for leaks. Make sure the knobs on the handle are closed, open the gas valve a half turn, and then spray a mixture of soapy water over each connection. You will see small bubbles if there is a leak.

One place I have found the most leaks is on the stem valve. Tightening down the nut around the stem fixes this problem. If in doubt on how to fix a leak, turn off the gas and return the tank to your fuel supplier.

At the end of the work day, drain the pressure off the gauges. Keeping pressure on the system can cause malfunctions in the pressure valves. If a valve isn’t working correctly, have it repaired immediately. A symptom of a malfunctioning valve is that after setting the gauge for a correct psi pressure, the gauge slowly creeps up in pressure.

Check the hoses for cracking, fraying, or leaks.

Post a notice at the entrance of your studio including:  no smoking, oxygen is in use. I have bought signs from an industrial supply company. They list Oxygen is in use, Danger Acetylene, Fire Extinguisher Here, and No Smoking. I have some on the outside of my studio door, and others inside my studio. This not only informs the public, but also the fire department should there be a fire in the vicinity. Some towns request you to list your tanks and address with the fire department.

Last spring, during fire season, a friend in California had to evacuate her home. She didn’t know what to do with her tanks. I asked my Fire Marshal what I should do in case of a forest fire. He said, "Place them on the center of your driveway out in front of your house." He added that any flammable liquids like paint thinner, gasoline, etc. should also be placed there. They will see it and either pick them up or make sure they are out of the way of fire.

Take extra care if using propane tanks, make sure your insurance allows you to have one in your studio. There are many cities that require them to be located outside. The reason being is propane is a heavy gas. If there is a leak the gas settles to the lowest point in the room and collects. You can have a leak and never smell it because it stays low. This is what happened to the above mentioned jeweler.

Until next time, have fun claying around!

by Janet Alexander 
Technical Adviser

Monday, October 13, 2014

Using a Clay Extruder with Metal Clay

An extruder allows you to make different shapes of even thicknesses in clay very quickly. It's also great for making clay tubing. Use the tubing for hollow bails, hinges, stone settings, or anything else you can imagine.

This is an aluminum extruder that is anodized with green paint. It is not advised to keep the fine silver metal clay in the extruder for very long, as this can cause a reaction with the clay. A very short amount of time; however, does not cause a reaction.

Note: These extruders also come in a stainless steel version.

The tubing attachments include a circle disc and a strange looking disc with a protruding nose (here, the Makin's ClayCore Adapter.)

Choose the disc with the circle large enough to allow space for the clay to extrude around the tube disc's nose.

The order in which the parts fit into the extruder is: the cap, rubber ring, circle disc, tubing disc, clay, and the extruder body.
Note that the tubing disc's nose points through the circle disc.

The Steps:

Twist the extruder's handle counter clockwise making the plunger slide into the body of the extruder. 
Roll your metal clay by hand into a ball so it fits inside the extruder. 
Place the tube disc into the extruder.

Place the circle disc in the cap and attach cap to body.

Extrude the clay into a tube by holding it perpendicular to the table and evenly twisting the handle clockwise. If you start and stop while twisting, the tube will not be even or uniformly shaped.

If you are creating larger pieces, the ClayMill Metal Clay Extruder is a great tool to use.

Until next time, have fun claying around!

by Janet Alexander 
Technical Adviser